Happy Chanukah: Adam and Maxine Rapoport's Potato Latkes (Potato Pancakes)from Bon Appetit Magazine!

The other day I stumbled upon the latke line-up for the Fourth Annual Latke Festival (and I nearly boarded a plane bound for LaGuardia airport). My mouth started to water and I swear I could almost taste those latkes made by some of the best restaurants in New York City. But (now) I live 1,800 miles from Brooklyn, and since flying in for a latke festival seems a bit extravagant, I thought about organizing a latke-swap right here in Denver. 

We could have all kinds of latkes: sweet potato, leek, yam & carrot, curried latkes. Oh, and the toppings...we could really go nuts!  But maybe I was getting ahead of myself. I decided that before taking on a more inventive latke menu I should master "the classic" first. 

I took out my most recent copy of Bon Appetit and there it was: the most perfect looking latke. The recipe was from Adam Rapoport's mother Maxine, and since Adam is the current editor of publication I figured it had to be good. It was. 

The latkes cooked evenly on both sides and they were perfectly crisp. There was not a bit of sogginess or unwanted oiliness. I made the recipe just as it was written, minus the optional schmaltz. (For those of you who don't know, schmaltz is rendered chicken fat. I have vivid memories of my father cutting fresh challah bread, slathering it with schmaltz, and then topping it with salt. It was part of our family's Friday night shabbat ritual until 1985 when some suggested that rendered chicken fat wasn't good for you, then my mother abruptly stopped serving it. I think it took my father years to recover emotionally; he really loved that schmaltz!)

But anyway, back to the latkes. They are really simple to make and they are the best latkes I've ever been able to make at home. We serve it with applesauce and sour cream!

Happy Chanukah!

xo, Batya

Adam and Maxine's Famous Latkes

Russets are ideal for latkes. Their high starch content means you won't need flour to bind the pancakes. The result? More potato, and a crunchy (not cakey) texture.

(Courtesy of Bon Appetit Magazine

Makes 24


3 pounds large russet potatoes (4-6)

1 medium Vidalia, yellow, or brown onions (about 2)

2 large eggs

1/4 cup fine plain dried breadcrumbs

3 1/2 teaspoons kosher salt

2 teaspoons baking powder

1/4 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper

2-4 tablespoons (or more) vegetable oil

2 tablespoons (or more) schmaltz (chicken fat; optional)


Sour cream


Preheat oven to 325°. Peel potatoes. Using the large holes of a box grater or the grater disk on a food processor, grate potatoes and onions. {I use the box grater for the potatoes and the food processor grating dish for the onions.} Transfer to a large kitchen towel. Gather ends of towel; twist over sink and squeeze firmly to wring out as much liquid as possible. Open towel; toss mixture to loosen. Gather towel; wring out once more.

Whisk eggs, breadcrumbs, salt, baking powder, and pepper in a medium bowl to blend. Add potato mixture. Using your fingers, mix until well coated. (Latke mixture should be wet and thick, not soupy.)

Line a large rimmed baking sheet with several layers of paper towels. Set a wire rack inside another large rimmed baking sheet; set aside. Heat 2 tablespoons schmaltz, if using, and 2 tablespoons oil (or 4 tablespoons oil if not using schmaltz; fat should measure about 1/8 inches) in a 12 inches nonstick skillet over medium-high heat. Drop a small amount of latke mixture into pan. If the fat sizzles around the edges, it's ready. (Do not let fat smoke.)

Working in batches and adding more schmaltz and oil to skillet as needed to maintain 1/8 inches fat, drop large spoonfuls of mixture into pan, pressing gently with the back of a spoon or spatula to flatten slightly. (If mixture becomes watery between batches, mix to incorporate; do not drain.)

Cook latkes, occasionally rotating pan for even browning, until golden brown and cooked through, 2 1/2-3 minutes per side. (If small pieces of potato floating in the oil start to burn, carefully strain out.)

Transfer latkes to paper towel-lined baking sheet to drain, then transfer to prepared wire rack. Place sheet with latkes in oven to keep warm and crisp while cooking remaining latkes.

Serve warm latkes with applesauce and sour cream.

Here are some vegetarian options from the Fourth Annual Potato Latke Festival in Brooklyn: 

  • Potato Latke with Fontina, Apple, and Truffles from A Voce.
  • Potato, Yam & Carrot Latke with Honey, Preserved Lemons & Yogurt Sauce from Balaboosta
  • Potato Pancakes with Vanilla Applesauce and Schmaltzy Onions from Blue Ribbon Brooklyn
  • Laid Back Latke with Deviled Egg and Red Onion, Parsley and Black Olive Relish from Dizzy's Club Coca-Cola
  • Spud Maccabee with Pickled Fennel Jam, Butternut Squash, and Crème Fraîche from The Farm on Adderley
  • Magic Mushroom Cakes: Traditional Potato Pancakes made with Mushrooms & Onions and topped with Porcini Mushroom Sauce and Cranberry-Apple Sauce from Norma's
  • Duo of Potato Latke with Balsamic Lemon Crème Fraiche, Fresh Shaved Black Truffles and Micro Green Salad from Veselka

A Market Inspiration: Swiss Rösti topped with Shakshuka

Last week I took the boys to the Denver Christkindl Market, a traditional German Christmas market that replicates the kind of markets that have existed in Germany and throughout parts of Western Europe for over 700 years. The month-long market (which ends on December, 22) is located at Skyline Park in Downtown Denver, right on 16th Street at Arapahoe. 
Vendors are selling German crafts (ornaments, biersteins, wood-carved toys, lace, nesting dolls, etc.) from traditional wooden stalls. 
And in addition to the crafts (which were quite beautiful), there's lots of great food: cinnamon pretzels, German pastries, crepes, and bratwurst, to name a few.... 
You can eat your culinary treats (and drink some Glühwein too) in a large tent at the end of the market. The tent is filled with picnic tables and benches, a bar, and a stage designated for musical performances.

One of my favorite food vendors at the market is Latke Love. They are serving traditional potato latkes (which I always considered quintessential Jewish food from Eastern Europe, but turns out also exists as a German dish called Kartoffelpuffer or Reibekuchen). I got the classic: latkes topped with applesauce and cinnamon whipped cream. I'm also a big fan of their other vegetarian option, Oy Vey Caliente!- where latkes are piled high and topped with green chili and a poached egg. Delicious!(For the omnivores, there are meat options too.)  
Now many cuisines have potato latkes, they just go by a different name. 
In Germany the latke is called Kartoffelpuffer or Reibekuchen. In Luxembourg you'd order Gromperekichelcher. Poles slather their placki ziemniaczane in sour cream. Ukrainians, Belarusians and Russians call their potato pancake deruny or draniki. And the Swiss have Rösti, a very large potato pancake that's a lot like a latke, except it doesn't contain eggs or flour. 
There are variations on rösti: some recipes add herbs like rosemary and caraway seeds. Others add meat, eggs or cheese. But they are all basically grated potato, that's been pressed and fried in a pan. 
This rösti recipe, considered the definitive version, is from Restaurant Della Casa in Bern. It was first published in the January/February 1998 issue of Saveur magazine. And last month, in celebration of Saveur's 150th issue, they reprinted it under 150 Classic Recipes. (I also saw it on Lottie + Doof, one of my favorite food blogs.)
Rösti: Swiss Hash Browns (Courtesy of Saveur Magazine


2¼ lb. russet potatoes (about 3 large)
2 tbsp. lard or unsalted butter
2 tbsp. canola oil
1 tbsp. kosher salt, plus more to taste


1. Place potatoes in a large saucepan, cover with cold water, and bring to a boil over medium-high heat; cook until tender, about 30 minutes. Drain potatoes, and set aside to cool for about 10 minutes. Peel potatoes, then refrigerate until chilled, at least 1 hour. Grate potatoes using the large holes on a cheese grater; set aside.

2. Heat butter (or lard) and oil in an 8" nonstick skillet over medium-low heat. When lard has melted, add potatoes, sprinkle with salt, and mix well, coating potatoes with fat. Using a metal spatula, gently press potatoes, molding them to fit the skillet. Cook, shaking skillet occasionally, until edges are golden brown, about 20 minutes.
3. Cover skillet with a large inverted plate, invert the rösti over onto plate, then slide it back into the skillet, cooked side up; cook until golden brown on the bottom, about 20 minutes. Transfer to a cutting board, sprinkle with salt, and cut into wedges to serve. 

Now rösti is plenty delicious on its own, but I was feeling inspired by the latke toppings I'd seen at the market. I decided to top the potatoes with shakshuka, a fabulous dish whereby eggs are simmered in a spicy tomato sauce. 
I used a tried-and-true recipe that I've posted here, but  made a few adaptations:

  • Omitted the peppers and instead added a few pinches of red pepper flakes.
  • Omitted the fresh parsley and instead used a few pinches of dried parsley.
  • Used 1/2 a small onion and added one shallot, chopped.
  • Pulsed the sauce a few times with an immersion blender to give it more of a pomodoro-like consistency, which I thought would go better on top of the potatoes.

But get creative. Top the rösti with something you like. Or, you can do as Swiss purists do...and eat it like it's been eaten at Bern's Restaurant Della Casa for hundreds of years.
Happy holidays and happy eating! 

Squash It! Ollin Farm and Lots of Seasonal (Squash) Fare

Producing real food is very hard work. And producing food on a scale that is larger than what you can get from a small garden in your backyard, well, that is a tremendous undertaking. 
Now I've never personally worked on a farm, but I did try to grow strawberries on my fire escape in Brooklyn one time...and let me tell you, it did not go well. I watered that strawberry plant and I made sure the soil had nutrients. I loved that plant and I gave her my all. In return for my efforts, my plant produced ONE pitiful looking strawberry. I had been dreaming of strawberry salads and fresh fruit smoothies. I don't know what I was thinking. That summer my dill and basil didn't fare much better. And that marked the end of my urban growing experience.
A bit of of time passed, and I found a new confidence. I'd done some reading, dog-eared some pages of Martha Stewart Living, and followed a handful of gardening blogs religiously. I planted two tomato plants, basil, cilantro, rosemary, mint and Italian parsley. 
My expectations were modest. 
It's been a few months since my initial planting. The tomato plants are growing, by there's nary a tomato in sight. The basil looks depressed and the cilantro is dead. The good news is my mint, rosemary and parsley are thriving. But it's not exactly what I would call season's bounty. I never even got to planting vegetables like spinach, chard, or squash. Farmers, you have my respect! 
Farming is seriously hard work. I found out all about it when I went to the Ollin Farm for their Squash Festival last weekend. The farm is in Longmont, Colorardo-- not too far from Boulder. It's in a really beautiful part of the country. (I first heard of the farm through this post on Boulder Locavore.)
Ollin Farm seems like a product of love. It is run by a husband-and-wife team, along with their children (and I believe a few other family members and some workers too). Kena is originally from Mexico City and her husband Mark is from Colorado. While they didn't have backgrounds in agriculture or farming, 5 years of hard work and lots of education have paid off- they have one of the nicest farms I've been to.
There was so much gorgeous looking produce at the festival. There were heirloom squashes, Ronde de Nice, Pattypans, zucchinis, summer squashes, herbs, beets and greens. Back to Basics Kitchen had a demonstration table that was full of delicious dishes-- all containing the ingredient of the day, squash! 
Thank you Ollin Farm for a great day. You've inspired me to try my hand (again) at small-time farming next summer...
{Recipes follow.} 
I don't know why I always refer to sheep as female. At any rate, this is Victor....
The Back to Basics Kitchen demonstration table. The Pesto Zucchini Noodles were delicious. They gave out recipe cards, but I misplaced mine. Sad face. 
Unfortunately for me, the visit to the chicken coop coincided with Otis's nap time and a slight meltdown ensued. He was positively certain that the chickens wanted to "eat him up." And there was crying. I tried to comfort him, but things started to go downhill...with a quickness! Theo, oblivious to the meltdown, was desperately trying to chase the poultry. 
These eggs were plucked right out of the hen house. It got me thinking...if we stay in Colorado, should we get chickens? I'm not sure what Omar (our elderly Rott) would think of that situation- it's chaotic enough around our parts. I'm not sure my husband would be on board either...but maybe?! 
Water drip technology is an efficient way to irrigate the crops. 
I picked up some deliciously amazing squash. Thank you Ollin Farm for a great day. 
See you for the Tomato Festival!
* * *
Zucchini and Potato Soup (Courtesy of Anna Thomas's Love Soup)
{In contrast to the soups I usually make, which have a very intense flavor, this soup is relatively mild -- but it is creamy (though creamless) and satisfying. You really need to adjust the salt and pepper here. That is key. Add a drizzle of olive oil and some crumbled feta before serving. Wanna really jazz it up? Add some sauteed zucchini blossoms. Next time I may add a pinch of cayenne or paprika.}
Serves 6-8
2 1/4 lbs. zucchini
2 large yellow onions
7 oz. Yukon Gold Potato
2 Tbs. olive oil
1 1/2 tsp. sea salt, plus more to taste
3 1/2 cups basic light vegetable broth
1/2 cup chopped basil
1/4 chopped fresh flat-leaf parsley
freshly ground black pepper
2 Tbs. fresh lemon juice, plus more to taste
Optional Garnishes: fruity green olive oil, crumbled feta or queso fresco, sauteed zucchini blossoms
Wash and trim the zucchini, halve them lengthwise if they are thick, and slice them or cut them into 1-inch dice. Peel and coarsely chop the onions. Scrub and finely dice the potatoes.
Heat the olive oil in a large sauté pan, add the chopped onions and a pinch of salt, and sauté the onions over medium heat, stirring often, until they are soft and golden brown, 25 to 30 minutes.
Meanwhile, combine 2 cups of water, the vegetable broth, the potatoes, and a teaspoon of salt in a large soup pot. Bring the liquid to a boil, reduce the heat, and simmer, covered, for 30 minutes. Add the zucchini and simmer another 10 minutes.
When the onions are ready, add them to the soup pot, along with the chopped basil and parsley. Grind in an ample amount of black pepper and add 2 tablespoons of lemon juice. Taste, and add a pinch more salt or a little more lemon juice if needed.
The soup can be pureed, either in a blender or with an immersion blender. Be careful not to over process, as potatoes tend to become gummy when over-worked. Whisk in 1 to 2 tablespoons of olive oil. Add some crumbled feta or queso fresco. Maybe some pan-fried zucchini blossoms? Enjoy! 

Other seasonal, squash recipes that I've posted:
Gina DePalma's Zucchini-Olive Oil Cake with Crunchy Lemon Glaze.
Elise of Simply Recipes' Mücver Patties
Love & Olive Oil's Zucchini Basil Soup (from Epicurious)

Recipes from the blogosphere that I'm making this week:
Roasted Zucchini, Black Bean and Goat Enchiladas from Sprouted Kitchen
Pattypan Squash Stuffed with Corn from Martha Rose Shulman, The New York Times
Stuffed Ronde de Nice from Megan Bucholz for Edible Front Range
Pan-fried Zucchini Blossoms with Ricotta and Garden Herbs from Food & Style

Pumpkin Cheesecake, Baked Potatoes and a post-Thanksgiving review

Weep. Weep. Sniffle. Sniffle. I thought I was going to be able to prep, cook and post my holiday recipes as I was making them. But that just didn't happen. I was lucky to get everything into the oven!  It's possible that I over-extended myself (you know, since there's a toddler and infant in tow), but I'm happy to report that I was able to make everything I set out to make.* I also tried new recipes.  That caused some trepidation; it's much more comforting to present dishes that you've made a million times because you can vouch for their deliciousness.  But I really wanted to emerge from my comfort zone and try a new dessert and a new side dish.  
So, I started cooking the night before Thanksgiving after the kids went to sleep. I decided to make a pumpkin cheesecake with gingersnap and hazelnut crust. Hello! I'd seen it in Saveur magazine in a feature on vegetarian Thanksgivings (!).  The cake took a while to make, but it was worth it.  It's decadent and rich (and definitely not for the lactose intolerant).  It felt much more holiday appropriate than the standard Upstate Cheesecake I typically make.  Going with the pumpkin version was the right thing to do. 
Thanksgiving Day was warm with temperatures hovering around 70 degrees here in Denver.  Crazy, right? We went over to our friend's new home (in historic Washington Park) to celebrate.  We were really happy to be included because our families are back in New York (having their get-together which includes 'Turkey Parts'- but that's a story for another time).  Our hosts were taking care of the bird.
Since I don't eat turkey and I wasn't sure how well a giant Tofurkey (with gravy on the side!) would go over with the crowd, I settled on Heidi Swanson's Wild Rice Casserole.  It's easy to make and it's a real crowd pleaser.  I also adapted a Giada De Laurentiis recipe for Baked Potatoes with Bread Crumbs and Parmesan Crust.  I liked the potatoes and would definitely make them again.  (Note: you must add a lot of salt to the dish or else it will be bland and flat).  Of course since this is the holiday season, a few tablespoons of cream seemed like an appropriate addition too!
Our friends made some great food: a wonderful-tart cranberry dish, a very yummy spinach casserole, stuffing (vegetarian and from the bird) and a pumpkin pie.  We all had a great time and Otis loved playing with his friends.  Otis also went nuts over the electric Thomas the Train track set that was in the house...which he's been talking about ever since...
Hope you all had a great holiday! 

* Well, almost everything made it.  I did suffer two altitude-related causalities: curried deviled eggs never boiled right and the caramel in my tart got a little scorched (still very edible) because the boiling point here is something I'm still getting used too.  That said, I am getting the hang of it! 
Pumpkin Cheesecake with Gingersnap and Hazelnut Crust 
Serves 12-14
Ingredients for the Crust: 
1¼ cups (about 8 oz.) finely ground gingersnap cookie crumbs
¾ cup finely ground hazelnuts
6 tbsp. unsalted butter, melted
3 tbsp. packed light brown sugar
For the topping: 
3 tbsp. sugar
1 tsp. vanilla extract
1 16-oz. container sour cream
For the filling:
1 cup packed light brown sugar
1 tsp. ground cinnamon
¼ tsp. ground allspice
¼ tsp. ground ginger
3 8-oz. packages cream cheese, softened
4 eggs
½ cup heavy cream
⅓ cup maple syrup
2 tsp. vanilla extract
1 15-oz. can pumpkin puree


1. Make the crust: Heat oven to 325°. Wrap the outside of a 9" springform pan with foil and set aside. Combine gingersnap crumbs, hazelnuts, butter, and brown sugar in a food processor, and process until evenly combined. Transfer to pan and press evenly into bottom and halfway up side; bake until set, about 10 minutes. Let cool and set aside.
2. Make the topping: Whisk together sugar, vanilla, and sour cream in a medium bowl until smooth; set aside.
3. Make the filling: Set a kettle of water to boil. In the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with a paddle, beat brown sugar, cinnamon, allspice, ginger, and cream cheese until smooth and fluffy, about 3 minutes. Add eggs one at a time, beating well after each addition, until evenly incorporated. Add cream, syrup, vanilla, and pumpkin, and mix until smooth. Pour filling over crust and place springform pan into a large roasting pan; pour enough boiling water into roasting pan to come halfway up side of spring-form pan. Bake until filling jiggles slightly in the center when the pan is tapped on the side, about 1 hour and 45 minutes.
4. Pour sour cream topping over filling and gently smooth top; continue baking for 5 minutes. Remove springform pan from water bath and let cool completely to room temperature. Chill until set, at least 4 hours or overnight, before serving.

* * *
Baked Potatoes with Bread Crumb-Parmesan Crust (Adapted from Giada De Laurentiis)
6 to 8 servings
1 tablespoon butter
5 pounds russet potatoes, peeled, cut into 1-inch pieces
1 1/4 cup whole milk
1/2 cup (1 stick) butter, melted, plus 1 tablespoon
1 1/2 cups grated mozzarella
1 cup freshly grated Parmesan
Salt and freshly ground black pepper (You really have to add a lot of salt and pepper. There are the only 2 spices in this recipe, so don't be shy. Taste as you go.)
3 tablespoons seasoned bread crumbs
2 tablespoon heavy cream
Preheat the oven to 400 degrees F. Coat a 13 by 9 by 2-inch baking dish (I used a large circular pan) with 1 tablespoon of butter and set aside.
Cook the potatoes in a large pot of boiling salted water until they are very tender, about 15 minutes. Drain; return the potatoes to the same pot and mash well. Mix in the milk and melted butter. Mix in the mozzarella and 3/4 cup of the Parmesan. Season, to taste, with salt (a lot) and pepper. Transfer the potatoes to the prepared baking dish. Stir the bread crumbs and remaining 1/4 cup of Parmesan in a small bowl to blend. Sprinkle the bread crumb mixture over the mashed potatoes. Add two tablespoons of heavy cream.  Taste and adjust salt and pepper.  If it doesn't have flavor now, it's not going to have it when it's finished baking!  Recipe can be prepared up to this point 6 hours ahead of time; cover and chill.
Bake, covered for 10 minutes. Then bake an additional 10 minutes, until the topping is golden brown.
And the Wild Rice Casserole.  Click here for recipe. 
And the ever popular and very fabulous Chocolate Caramel Tart from Marlow & Sons. Click here for recipe.  (Note: I took this picture in Brooklyn- the first time I made this pie.  The caramel was runny and gooey.  Not so when I made the same tart in Denver.  It suffered from an altitude sickness and the caramel got a bit burnt and the crust was a bit dry. Not to worry. I will correct my mistakes and make it again in the Mile-High City!) 

Sweet Home...Colorado: Sweet Corn Chowder

The boxes have (mostly) been unpacked and we decided to hit the ground running. I had an intense desire to check out the food scene here in Denver and I was really excited to try new places and a different cuisine. We got right down to business and ate the ubiquitous smothered breakfast burrito with green chiliIt was delicious- great heat, wonderful flavor. 
I'm lucky because I live in the Highlands neighborhood, right near Burrito Giant. Normally green chili is made with pork and it's hard to find the sauce without any meat product. But Burrito Giant has an out-of-this-world vegetarian chili (which can also be spelled chile- both ways are acceptable.) Theirs is one of one of my favorites so far. 
The weather here in Denver is almost always sunny and you can get really hot when you're standing in the sun. I found that Little Man ice cream is the perfect way to cool down. I also sampled some Liks Ice Cream inside my local bookstore, the Bookery Nook. Not too shabby. 
Alright, so we had great Mexican food, local dairy treats but I needed to be sure I could find Italian provisions and sweets. Coming from Brooklyn I wasn't sure anything could live up to L&B Spumoni or Lioni's. But we checked out the local Italian neighborhood called Wheat Ridge, which is right over the Denver city line-- so not too far if I need fresh mozzarella, tiramisu or a killer tomato sauce. We found an extremely authentic place called Dolce Sicilia Italian Bakery. I'm happy to report that their cannolis were dynamite! 
We also went to one of the local farmers market on Saturday. It was crowded, but there was plenty of space to move around. The market has ready-to-eat food (from trucks and stalls), cheese, crafts and locally produced fruits and vegetables. I saw this really cool food stand and wound up getting a fantastic pinto bean and cheese pupusa to start things off. It was served traditionally, with curtido- a lightly fermented cabbage slaw with red chilies and vinegar, and a watery tomato salsa. Then I got some fresh fruit and one of the best freshly squeezed (organic) lemonades I've had to date. And I drink a ton of fresh lemonade!  
I picked up tons of farm-fresh vegetables including, arugula, beets, tomatoes, potatoes and corn. The corn was sweet as could be and I decided that I wanted to make a chowder. I remembered seeing this recipe (below) and decided to make it. Potatoes, sweet corn, thyme and cream. It's fantastic! Enjoy.

And now for the Sweet Corn Chowder...

Sweet Corn Chowder (Courtesy of Tyler Florence)
2 tablespoons butter
Extra-virgin olive oil
1 onion, diced
2 garlic cloves, minced
6 sprigs fresh thyme, leaves only
1/4 cup all-purpose flour
6 cups canned vegetable stock
2 cups heavy cream
2 Idaho potatoes, peeled and diced
6 ears corn
Salt and freshly ground black pepper
1/4 cup chopped fresh parsley leaves
Heat the butter and 1 tablespoon olive oil in a soup pot over medium heat. Add the onion, garlic, and thyme and cook until the vegetables are good and soft, 8 to 10 minutes. Dust the vegetables with flour and stir to coat everything well. Pour in the vegetable stock and bring to a boil. Add the cream and the potatoes, bring to a boil and boil hard for about 7 minutes, until the potatoes break down (this will help to thicken the soup and give it a good texture).
Cut the corn kernels off the cob (I always cut them into a big bowl) and add to the soup. Season with salt and pepper and simmer until the corn is soft, about 10 to 12 minutes. Ladle the soup into bowls and serve. Stir in the parsley and give it another little drink of olive oil. 

* * *
And here are a few shots from our first week in Colorado for those of you who are checking in on us from New York City. We took two excursions, one to Red Rocks and one to Garden of the Gods...